Physiological parameters: Bats may be homoiothermic or heterothermic in part
of their lives. Flying foxes are reported to be obligate homoiothermic mammals.
The rectal temperature in fruit bats varies form 37 to 38.5°C. Vampire bats have
been reported to produce copious quantities of urine. The heart rates in bats tend
to be varied from 100 to 970 beats per minute. This, however, depends on the
size of animal, body weight, climatic conditions etc. The haemogram of Malaysian
flying fox is as follows: RBC (xl06 mm3 » :7.4-9.8; Hb (g/ dl):12. 9-15.7; PCV (% ):42-
47; WBC (xl03 / mm3):7.8-18.6; Segmented neutrophils (% ):11-56; Eosinophils (% ):0;
Basophils (% ):0; Lymphocytes (%):43-88 and Monocytes (%):0.0-2.0.
Blood may be collected by clipping a toenail or by heart puncture. Venipuncture
for collection of blood in bats is also done by stretching the wing and locating the
vein on the anterior edge between the carpus and shoulder. The milk of fringed
bat (Myotes thysanodes) contains 17.9% fat, 12.1 % protein and 3.4% lactose.
Diseases: Bats are known to be infected with some infectious diseases. They include rabies, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, haemorrhagic septicaemia, salmonellosis, spirochaetosis, brucellosis and shigellosis. Bats are infected by at least 28 different viruses. Yellow fever and vesicular stomatitis are known to occur in bats.