Restraint: Monkeys are controlled manually for various purposes. It defends by
scratching and biting. It is particularly true for larger primates. Restrainers should
always be cautious during handling of primates. Larger primates especially apes
are very powerful animals and can crush hands and dislocate joints of the handlers.
Primates have the habit of throwing objects such as stones, hypodermic darts and
faeces at the restrainers. Another important point is that handler should not use
full length neck tie and clothe with pockets while handling of primates. Gloves,
hoop nets and squeeze cages are the important tools for working with these
animals. Primates should not be handled with bare hands. Heavy leather gloves
should be used in order to prevent injuries. However, some zoo animal specialists
are of the opinion that bare hands are sometimes desirable for properly gripping
the animals. A bath towel may be used for controlling small primates. A net or
bag net can also be used for controlling the animal. A medium sized primate can
be physical1y restrained by holding its arms behind its back. Then the restrainer's
fingers can be inserted between the arms for safeguard. A small to medium sized
primate may be grasped by holding its forelimbs. Plywood sheets can be used for
transporting large apes.
Housing and management: Like many other mammals, primates are popular zoo exhibits. Primates such as monkeys and chimpanzees are widely attracted by the visitors in the zoological gardens. The proper designing of a house for primates depends on climate, kind of animals and type of display. The followings are the important principles for housing and management of captive primates. Captive chimpanzees are the best kt:town primates for their highly social and adaptable nature. A cage measuring 17 ft (5.18 m) x 16 ft (4.87 m) x 17 ft (5.18 m) may provide adequate space for a single animal. A water moat with a proper barrier can be provided. The chimpanzee may enjoy walking through water. Other necessary items such as pillars, sleeping branches and bars should be provided in the cage. This animal is known for its nest building activity. Temperature, humidity and ventilation should be maintained properly. Macaques are relatively easy to maintain in captivity. They may be kept in pairs or in family groups. A cage measuring 2.0 m x 1.0 m x 1.5 m may be adequate for keeping a pair of animals. The minimum size of outdoor per enclosure per pair is 500 sq m. When monkeys are kept in adjacent cages, it is essential that partitions should be made of solid materials. The wire netting partitions may cause injuries during fighting. Another important point is that the adult male will be violent in the presence of its potential rival in the same quarter. Therefore, two mature males should not be kept in the same enclosure. Langurs or hanuman monkeys are very difficult to maintain in captivity. However, they may be kept in a cage with sufficient space. Branches and elevated shelves should be provided for langurs. New World monkeys can thrive well in captivity. Most species in this group can be housed in a glass-fronted indoor cage measuring 3.4 m x 2.5 m x 2.2 m. Rocks, logs, branches, gravel, sand and growing plants should be provided in the enclosure.